18. Read the following passage and make notes. Add a Suitable Title [1×4=4Marks]
Example 1 (Page 241)
In December 2019, the novel coronavirus called SARs-CoV-2 had resulted in a respiratory illness called COVID-19. ‘CO’ stands for corona, ‘VI’ for the virus, and D stands for disease’19’ is the year in which it broke out. This virus was unknown before its outbreak in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Coronavirus is a family of viruses that may cause disease in animals and humans. It causes respiratory infections ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases. India has approved seven vaccines. It’s currently using only three vaccines, Covishield, Covaxin prepared by Bharat Biotech and Sputnik V. While we are still learning how COVID-19 affects people, aged people, and people with pre-existing medical conditions like high blood pressure, heart disease, lung disease, cancer, etc. appear to be at greater risk than others.
We can reduce the chances of being infected with COVID-19 by taking simple precautions. We should clean our hands with sanitizer or wash them with soap water because this action kills viruses on our hands. Everyone must maintain 6 feet distance from others. Once contaminated, hands can transfer the virus to your eyes, nose, or mouth, so avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth. Droplets of saliva spread the virus. So distance needs to be maintained. Good respiratory hygiene protects the people around you from viruses such as cold, flu, and COVID -19. Therefore masks need to be worn.
TITLE: CORONA VIRUS
CO – corona
VI – virus
D – Disease
19- year it appeared
- Corona Virus
Family of SARS-CoV-2
- Vaccine, drug or treatment
- At the risk of severe illness
Persons with chronic problems
Cleaning hands frequently
Maintaining 6 feet distance
Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth
Example 2 (Page 242)
Biodiversity refers to the variability and variety of different species of plants and animals on Earth. This variety contributes towards making our planet inhabitable. The reason for the unequal distribution of various organisms in different parts of the world is due to varied climatic conditions. There is greater terrestrial biodiversity near the equator and this is caused due to warm climate and high primary productivity. On the other hand, marine biodiversity is highest along the coasts in the Western Pacific as it has the highest sea surface temperature. Biodiversity basically clusters in hotspots and while it has been on a rise though time researchers state that it is likely to slow down in the times to come. It is essential to maintain rich diversity to build a harmonious environment. It enables the survival of human beings by providing them with their basic needs such as food, shelter, medicines, etc. However, the increasing pollution which is continually degrading the environment is also having a negative impact on biodiversity. Several species that inhabited Earth earlier are now extinct and many others are feared to become extinct in the coming years. This will further lead to environmental imbalance and can prove to be hazardous for the human species.
TITLE: DIFFERENT SPECIES OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS ON EARTH
Exercise 1 (Page 243)
Sripathi Panditaradhyula Balasubrahmanyam also known as SPB or Balu, was an Indian playback singer, television presenter, music director, actor and film producer who worked predominantly in Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Hindi and Malayalam films. He is widely considered one of the greatest Indian singers of all time. Balasubrahmanyam has won six National Film Awards for Best Male Playback Singer for his works in four different languages – Telugu, Tamil, Kannada and Hindi; 25 Andhra Pradesh state Nandi Awards for his work in Telugu cinema; and numerous other state awards from Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. In addition, he won the Filmfare Award and six Filmfare Awards South. According to some sources, he holds the Guinness World Record for recording the highest number of songs by a singer with over 40,000 songs. He recorded 21 songs in Kannada for the composer Upendra Kumar in Bengaluru from 9 am to 9 pm on 8 February 1981. In addition, he recorded 19 songs in Tamil and 16 songs in Hindi in a day, which has also been a record. In 2012, he received the state NTR National Award for his contributions to Indian cinema. In 2016, he was honored with the Silver Peacock Medal as Indian Film Personality of the Year. He was a recipient of the Padma Shri (2001), Padma Bhushan (2011), and Padma Vibhushan (Posthumously) (2021) from the Government of India. He was a recipient of the Harivarasanam Award from the Government of Kerala. On 25 September 2020, S. P. Balasubrahmanyam died in Chennai after being hospitalized for over a month for complications due to COVID-19.
TITLE : SP Balasubrahmanyam THE SAGA (38)
Sripathi Panditaradhyula Balasubrahmanyam
Singer, tv presenter, music director, actor, and producer.
B) Languages worked in
Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam and Hindi.
- National Film Awards – Best Male Playback Singer in four languages
- 25 AP Nandi Awards
- Numerous Awards from Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala
- Filmfare Awards
- NTR National Award
- Silver Peacock Medal
- The Padma Shri (2001) and Padma Bhushan (2011) and Padma Vibhushan (2021) (posthumously-after death)
- Harivarasanam Award from Kerala Government
- Guinness World Record – over 40,000 songs-recorded
- 21 songs recorded in one day (9AM – 9PM – 8 – Feb,1981-Kannada)
- 19 songs in Tamil, 16 songs in Hindi – in one day – each.
E) The End
- On 25 September 2020-COVID-19 complications
Exercise 2 (Page 244)
It is observed that most educational institutions believe online classes as the only solution during this pandemic. In contrast, researcher Eric Bettinger Susanna Loeb’s work Promises and Pitfalls of Online Education shows that online teaching may raise dropouts at primary and upper primary levels. It is observed from the survey report that online classes are suggestible for classes 8 and above. It is beneficial to the one who can afford, but detrimental to the one who can ill afford it. This reflects adversely for primary classes. Most of the rural and BPL parents may not afford mobile phones, network charges, computers and even TV sets. This may lead to discrimination. Parents are not educated on cyber security and it may create a mess for parents as well as students. Our education system exists on the same planet as we are and affected by the conditions around us as we are. Primary victims of Online classes are rural students, particularly in the public sector. Most of the government school students from rural and interior areas can neither afford technology nor have parental support. It is the misfortune of these innocent kids.
The system has to be considerate to them.
TITLE – PROMISES AND PITFALLS OF ONLINE EDUCATION
|Solution to the Pandemic||Dropouts at primary & U.P. Levels|
|Suitable for 8 & High classes||BPL can’t afford|
|benefits only rich and urban students||not suitable for rural areas|
|favors Pvt. sector||Cyber insecurity to the uneducated|
Exercise 3 (Page 245)
Progress in life depends a good deal on crossing one threshold after another. Some time ago a man watched his little nephew trying to write his name. It was hard work, very hard work. The little boy had arrived at an effort to clear a threshold. Today he writes his name with comparative ease. Some people make the mistake of steering clear of thresholds. Anything that requires genuine thinking and use of energy, they avoid. Some middle-aged and elderly people greatly enrich their lives by continuing to cross thresholds. One man went into an entirely new business when he was past middle life and made a success of it. De Morgan didn’t start to write novels until he was past sixty. Psychologists have discovered that man can continue to learn throughout life. And it is undoubtedly better to try and fail, than not to try at all. Then, one can be placed in the category of the Swiss mountaineer of whom it was said, “He died climbing.” When a new difficulty raises to obstruct your path, do not complain. Accept the challenge. Determine to cross this threshold as you have crossed numerous other thresholds in your past life.
In the words of the poet, do not rest but strive to pass from dream to dream.
TITLE: STRIVE-REST NOT-CROSS THRESHOLDS
- Progress in life depends a good deal on crossing one threshold after another
- The little boy had arrived at an effort to clear a threshold.
- Some people make the mistake of steering clear of thresholds.
- Try and fail – stop not striving.
- Some middle-aged and elderly people greatly enrich their lives by continuing to cross thresholds.
- De Morgan didn’t start to write novels until he was past sixty
- Ready to think genuinely and use energy.
- When a new difficulty raises to obstruct your path, do not complain.
- Determine to cross this threshold as you have crossed numerous other thresholds in your past life.
- Rest not-pass on from dream to dream.
Exercise 4 (Page 245)
Many religions existed in India in the Middle Age. The most widely prevalent were, of course, Hinduism and Islam. But there were other religions too, like Buddhism, Jainism and Christianity. The outlook of the people, whether they were, Hindus or Muslims, was the same. They believed that the world was a vale of sorrow, and the only way to escape from it and the attainment of true happiness were by turning their hearts away from temptations of the senses and taking refuge in complete surrender to the will of God whose unlimited grace alone could save man. It was, therefore, necessary to place oneself under the control of a spiritual guide and preceptor, and to follow the path of grace inner discipline which led to the goal of realization of God. Both among the Hindus and the Muslims, there were many orders that saintly preceptors had established. The heads of these orders ministered to the needs of their disciples. Kabir, Nanak and others among the Hindus had founded such orders.
TITLE: SURRENDER TO GOD-THE SECRET OF LIFE
- Many religions in India
- But there were other religions too, like Buddhism, Jainism and Christianity.
- The outlook same – There is sorrow – to overcome it one needs to surrender to the will of God.
- They believed that the world was a vale of sorrow, and the only way to escape from it and the attainment of true happiness were by turning their hearts away from temptations of the senses and taking refuge in complete surrender to the will of God whose unlimited grace alone could save man.
- Spiritual guides needed for inner discipline and realization of God
- Many order to guide – in India
Exercise 5 (Page 245)
Lizzie, a medical intern, arrived at the hospital promptly at 8.00 am every morning. She said, “I began at once to prepare for the dressings by spreading the different ointments, preparing lint, lotion, poultices, bandages, etc. While I am doing that at a side table, the sister is going round and examining all wounds. The simpler case she leaves entirely to me very often, but the more difficult ones, such as cancer, she dresses while I look on.” The time this took varied constantly depending on the number and nature of the cases, but she generally had time to go upstairs and visit the patients in two medical wards before joining the house surgeon, Thomas, in his eleven o’clock rounds. After the doctor and surgeon finished their rounds, Lizzie gave patients their medicines as prescribed. Lunch was a fortifying meal of mutton chops and ale, which Lizzie ate alone in the hospital canteen. At 1.00 pm, she returned to the surgical ward to accompany any visiting surgeons. Lizzie arrived back at home by 4.30, where she rested for half an hour, talking to Louie and James and playing with their children. After changing her clothes into something more dainty, she did algebra till tea time at seven o’clock. To close out her day, she wrote letters to friends and family by the fire or practiced Latin.
TITLE: LIZZIE’S DAILY ROUTINE
- a medical intern
- promptly arrives at hospital at 8 am
- prepares dressings, lotions etc
- looks after simpler cases on her own
- gives medicines to patients as prescribed
- takes lunch alone in canteen
- accompanies visiting doctors from 1 pm to 4 pm
- Back home at 4.30 pm
- rest for a while talking to Louie, James and their children
- does algebra till tea at 7 pm
- letters to friends or practising Latin ends the day
Exercise 6 (Page 246)
“Thanks to the internet, women can become entrepreneurs. In the last four years between 2012 and 2015, the number of new women-owned small and medium business
Pages on Facebook has increased six-fold,” said Ankhi. “Kalpana Rajesh, a woman from India, was inspired to start her own business making bridal hair accessories after having done so for years for friends. She started her business in 2012 with three people – herself, her domestic worker and her friend. Today, she employs more than 200 women, working across thirty-six branches from Delhi to Tuticorin, with multiple product lines. She says that without Facebook, she estimates it would have taken her fifteen twenty years to grow her business to the same size it is today. Not only has Kalpana made a difference to her own life, but she has also made a telling difference to the lives of more than 200 women who are now earning their livelihood, thanks to Kalpana.”
TITLE: WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS – ROLE OF INTERNET
- Crucial role of internet in growing entrepreneurship
Ankhi’s study – six-fold increase in Facebook pages of women-owned businesses
- Kalpana Rajesh – started her business – bridal hair accessories – in 2012 with just three women (including herself)
- Now (2022) she has thirty-six branches – all over India with 200+ employees – multiple products
- Connectivity made possible by Facebook
- Helping herself and over 200 women
Exercise 7 (Page 246)
It is not enough to prepare well for examinations. Success in the exams depends also on your mental state of mind during the exam, proper time management, neat presentation of answers, and other small details. Sleep well on the night before the exam and resist the temptation of last-minute cramming. You should be well-rested and relaxed.
On the morning of the exam, have a light breakfast and set out. Reach the examination hall well in time, particularly on the first day. Once you get the question paper, read it carefully. Remain calm as any silly mistake you may make in understanding the questions can have damaging consequences. Spend at least five minutes going through the different sections of the paper. It is advisable to start with those questions you are confident with, instead of wasting time with the difficult ones. Do not panic if you get stuck with a question. Leave it incomplete and move on to the other questions. After completing the easier questions move on to the next level of difficulty. Save the toughest questions for the end. All the ‘bits” pertaining to a question should be answered in a sequence and at one place. Keep numbering the papers as you proceed. Draw all diagrams neatly and colour them, if possible, to make them more attractive. After you complete the sheets properly. You should then revise the answer paper at least twice before handing it.
TITLE: SUCCESS IN THE EXAMS MIND & BODY
- Proper time management
- Good mental state
- Neat presentation of answers
- Well rest & relax before exam
- Panic when stuck with a question
- Last minute cramming
On Exam Day
- Light Breakfast-Reach in time-QP careful reading
- First -Easy Questions
- End -Difficult question to Follow sequence-Draw neat & attractive- Revise