1. How To Avoid Foolish Opinions ( Bertrand Russell )
1. Annotate Any Two of the following in about 100 words each. [2×4=8Marks]
a) If someone maintains that two and two are five or that Iceland is on the equator, you feel pity rather than anger…
b) Persecution is used in theology, not in arithmetic because, in arithmetic, there is knowledge, but in theology, there is only opinion.
c) I have frequently found myself growing less dogmatic and cocksure through realizing the possible reasonableness of a hypothetical opponent.
d) Be very wary of opinions that flatter your self-esteem.
3. Answer Any Two of the following questions in about 100 words each. [2×4=8 Marks]
a) How can we prevent developing a dogmatic attitude as per Russell’s suggestion?
b) Travel is an excellent educator. Explain with reference to Russell’s essay How to Avoid Foolish Opinions.
c) According to Russel, what is the only way to tackle self-pride?
d) What does Bertrand Russell say about a person getting angry about a difference of opinion?
Introduction: These lines are taken from the lesson “How to Avoid Foolish Opinions” written by “Bertrand Russell”
About the author: Bertrand Arthur William Russell was born in the United Kingdom. He was a Philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, Social critic, Political activist, and Nobel laureate. His writing is characterized by an extended knowledge of Science and Philosophy. He is the author of Principia Mathematica, The Problem of Philosophy, and many other influential works.
Context – The article “How to Avoid foolish Opinions” deals with various ways to avoid many mistakes man makes. If someone says two and two are five, we don’t feel angry, But if we lack in arithmetic knowledge, we become angry. Anger cautions us to be careful. Where there is not much evidence about a particular issue, there is scope for differences in opinions. Theology leads to arguments whereas arithmetic doesn’t give any chance for disputes. Travel is an excellent educator. It teaches one, through many live examples, what cultures customs, crops climates, etc are!
Awareness of multiple types of beliefs through world journeys avoids foolish opinions. Russel found out that participating in an imaginary argument with a person holding opposite to yours is an effective technique.
Russell explains self-esteem is one major reason for differences in opinions. We have many instances where ideas flatter over Self-esteem. Both men and women strongly believe that they are better than the other sex.
Russell analyses that keep on expanding your knowledge on various issues that help you stay away from anger. A great thinker as Russell is, he suggests here a simple way to tackle self-pride. The method is to remember how short our life span is on a Small Planet.
Conclusion: Thus Russell gives us tips on how to avoid foolish opinions. The first is observation then, being ready to reconsider our opinions, the third is becoming aware of the fact, the fourth is ample use of psychological imagination and the fifth is keeping self-esteem within limits.
Introduction: These lines are taken from the lesson “How to Avoid Foolish
Opinions” written by “Bertrand Russell“.
About the author: Bertrand Arthur William Russell was born in the United Kingdom. He was a Philosopher, mathematician, historian, writer, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Context: The article How to Avoid foolish Opinions deals with various ways to avoid many mistakes a man makes.
Explanation: Russell, in his essay, How To Avoid Foolish Opinion says that there are many way to avoid being foolish. Making a keen observation where it can settle the bias is the first way. Next, to know what other people think
one has to be aware of what they think. This can be done by going on vacation and talking to peope with different ideas. The third is arguing with an imaginary character who has a different point of view. The fourth one is to deal with one’s sense of selfworth which is the hardest, to overcome we must remember that we live for a short while on a small planet.
Conclusion: Thus Russell gives us tips on how to avoid foolish opinions